a life-threatening mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Talaromyces marneffei. It is a major cause of death in patients with advanced HIV infection in Southeast Asia, China, and India.
From Lancet: A global call for talaromycosis to be recognised as a neglected tropical disease
Talaromycosis is an invasive fungal infection with a high casefatality rate, killing up to a third of diagnosed individuals
Talaromycosis (formerly penicilliosis) is caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus Talaromyces marneffei that is endemic in the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia (appendix p 2). T marneffei has a reservoir in wild bamboo rats living in the highlands of endemic regions and in the soil associated with the bamboo rats. Human infection is presumed to occur via inhalation of T marneffei spores from the environment.6 The HIV pandemic has led to a rapid rise in global incidence, particularly in the hyperendemic areas of southeast Asia (Thailand, Vietnam, and Myanmar), east Asia (southern China, Hong Kong, Taiwan), and northeastern India
Bach Mai Vietnam case (May 31, 2021)
A global call for talaromycosis to be recognised as a neglected tropical disease (Lancet, 2021)